Mineral springs on the territory of the Land of Maramureș
Due to its specific geological and hydrological conditions, the Maramureş Depression is home to many mineral sources of different types: chlorosodium, sulfurous, ferruginous, carbonated, etc., which appeared as a result of deposits being washed by deep water, through deep fractures through which carbon dioxide entered aquifers from andesitic agglomerates or sedimentary deposits, around the mofetic halo below Toroiaga, in Vaser and on Valea Vinului, etc.
Their number varies in specialized literature between 63 and 276, if we refer only to the Land of Maramureș, without including the sources from the north of the former county of the same name, located today in Ukraine, or those from the south of the county.
This number does not say much, as most low-flow sources have not been reviewed. Thus, the total number of mineral springs in historic Maramureş could amount to 1,000 sources.
Local mineral waters have been known and used since ancient times. In the medieval diplomas of Maramureş are mentioned the salt valleys from Slătioara - in 1353 and Ocna Şugatag in 1355, the mineral spring from Feredeauă, from the border of Văleni in 1390, the salt spring from the border of Rona de Jos in 1418 etc.
Apart from the salt water lakes, or the strongly mineralized streams, the most important springs are at: Ocna Şugatag (salt water), Coştiui (salt), Breb (three springs, bicarbonate, salt, sulphate), Botiza (four sources of all types, one being salty), Dragomireşti (sulfurous source, calcium, bicarbonate), Poienile de sub Munte - Cvaşniţa, Glod (bicarbonate, chlorinated, carbonated sources), Onceşti (bicarbonate, sodium, calcium, magnesium, ferruginous source), Săpânţa (three springs with bicarbonate profile, chlorosodium, carbon dioxide), Văleni - Feredeauă (four sources - bicarbonate, sulfur, sodium, carbon dioxide), Săliştea de Sus (two sources, one of which is salty), Borşa-Vinişor (23 bicarbonate, sodium, calcium sources ), Vişeu de Sus - Valea Vinului (27 mineral springs, bicarbonate, chlorinated, carbonated), Vaser Valley (53 reviewed mineral springs, of which the sources from Şuligu - bicarbonate, carbonated - stand out), etc.